Maryland History - the history of Maryland
   
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Vacation 2 USA   >   Maryland   >   History
Vacation 2 USA   >   History   >   Maryland History

   
 

Maryland History


Before the arrival of Europeans, the area that is today Maryland was inhabited by various Native American peoples. When Europeans arrived in the early 17th century, these included the Accohannock and Powhatan on Maryland's Western shore, and Nanticoke on the eastern shore. However, the Native American peoples were relatively quickly pushed out of the state, with the last tribe, the Shawnee, leaving in the 1740s.

The first European explorers to reach Maryland where various expeditions under English, French and Spanish flags in the 16th century, however no permanent settlements were established until the following century.

In 1632, George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore (whose coat of arms appears on the Maryland flag) applied to King Charles I of England for a royal charter to establish a new province. George Calvert died before the charter could be granted, and the charter was instead granted to his son, Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore later that same year. The first settlers, led by Cecil Calvert's younger brother, Leonard, departed from England in 1633, and landed on March 25th 1634 (a date that is still commemorated in the state each year as "Maryland Day").

The new colony of Maryland was named after Henrietta Maria, the Queen consort of Charles I. The goal of the colony was to establish a safe haven for English Catholics (the Calverts themselves were Catholic), as well as to turn a profit. As a result, Maryland soon became one of only a handful of predominately Catholic regions in the English colonies in America. This was not without controversy: there were serious anti-Catholic revolts, which resulted in the temporary overthrow of the Calvert family in 1644 to 1646, and 1650 to 1658.

One interesting aspect of early Maryland history, is that the royal charter was based on an incorrect map that would have put Pennsylvania's major city of Philadelphia within Maryland. In 1750, the Penn family (who controlled Pennsylvania) and the Calvert family, agreed to engage two surveyors, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon to survey a new boundary between the two colonies, which was named the Mason-Dixon line. Seventy years later, this line would become very important as a result of the Missouri Compromise of 1820: the expansion of slavery in the United States was only permitted South of this line.

During the American Revolution (1775 to 1783), Maryland, like many other colonies, was at first reluctant to split from Britain. Although no major battles took place within Maryland, the state did contribute important troops to the Continental Army, and it is probably from this contribution that the state gets the nickname "Old Line State". Additionally, the Continental Congress met for a few months in Baltimore in 1776 to 1777, and Annapolis also served as the US capital for just over seven months in 1783 to 1784.

Following the American Revolution the establishment of new permanent national capital was one of the first issues for the new government to address. A number of candidate cities were considered including Annapolis, but eventually it was decided to build a new capital (Washington D.C.). Maryland ceded approximately 61 square miles and Virginia approximately 39 square miles, to the federal government for this purpose (although Virginia's contribution was returned in 1846).

During the War of 1812, Maryland was the scene of two important battles. In 1814, the British defeated the Americans at the Battle of Bladensburg, and as result were able to capture Washington D.C. and burn many of the public buildings. The British navy also bombarded Fort McHenry (which defended Baltimore for 25 hours, but were unable to force its surrender: events there inspired Francis Scott Key to write "The Star-Spangled Banner" which was later to become the United States' national anthem.

During the American Civil War (1861 to 1865), Maryland found itself in a difficult position as both a slave state and one of the border states that straddled both North and South. There was considerable popular support for the Confederate cause, but Maryland did not secede from the Union thanks to swift and firm action by Abraham Lincolm, and the eventual support of Governor Thomas H. Hicks (who had initially favored neutrality and preventing Union troops from crossing the state). Maryland would eventually provide about 25,000 troops for the Confederacy (mostly serving in the Army of North Virginia), and about 60,000 men for the Union (mostly serving garrison duty within the state).

Maryland was crossed by troops of both sides during the Civil War. The most important battle occurring in the state being the Battle of Antienam, which was fought on September 17th 1862 near Sharpsburg. The battle, fought between about 87,000 men on the Union side and 40,000 on the Confederate side, although tactically a draw, effectively ended Robert E. Lee's invasion of the North.

One of the most noteable events of the 20th century that took place in Maryland, was the Great Baltimore Fire of 1904. The fire burned for over 30 hours on February 7th and February 8th, and destroyed more than 1,526 buildings across 70 city blocks. As a result of the fire, more than 35,000 people were left unemployed.

Like many former slave states, Maryland struggled with civil rights issues for long after the Civil War. For example, in the early 20th century there was several legislative attempts to disenfranchise African-Americans using property qualifications. On a brighter note, the 1935 case of Murray v. Pearson et al resulted in the integration of the University of Maryland Law School. This was the first time that any court had overturned the 1896 Supreme Court decision (Plessy v. Ferguson) approving racial segregation according to the "separate but equal" doctrine (although this particular new ruling had no authority outside Maryland).


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Your Maryland: Little-Known Histories from the Shores of the Chesapeake to the Foothills of the Allegheny Mountains

By Ric Cottom

Johns Hopkins University Press
Paperback (256 pages)

Your Maryland: Little-Known Histories from the Shores of the Chesapeake to the Foothills of the Allegheny Mountains
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"Good evening, I’m Ric Cottom. Welcome to Your Maryland." Since 2002, when he first delivered his now-classic radio segment on Maryland history, Ric Cottom has narrated hundreds of little-known human interest stories. Collected here are 72 of his favorite on-air pieces, enhanced with beautiful papercut illustrations by Baltimore artist Annie Howe. From accused witches and the murderous career of gunsmith John Dandy through tales of Johnny U and the greatest game ever played, Your Maryland covers nearly four centuries of the Free State’s heroes and scoundrels.

Entertaining listeners of all ages while sparking their interest in the past, Cottom’s beloved Your Maryland is a unique blend of carefully researched regional history and narrative nonfiction. He deftly emphasizes the human dimension of Maryland’s colorful past: its athletes (two- and four-legged), beautiful spies, brilliant writers, misunderstood pirates, and ghosts. All of that color, suspense, and humor―as well as the author’s unusual talent for discovering interesting historical facts and personages―is part of your Maryland.

Maryland, A Middle Temperament: 1634-1980 (Maryland Paperback Bookshelf)

By Robert J. Brugger

Brand: Johns Hopkins University Press
Paperback (864 pages)

Maryland, A Middle Temperament: 1634-1980 (Maryland Paperback Bookshelf)
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Maryland: A Middle Temperament explores the ironies, contradictions, and compromises that give "America's oldest border state" its special character. Extensively illustrated and accompanied by bibliography, maps, charts, and tables, Robert Brugger's vivid account of the state's political, economic, social, and cultural heritage―from the outfitting of Cecil Calvert's expedition to the opening of Baltimore's Harborplace―is rich in the issues and personalities that make up Maryland's story and explain its "middle temperament."

Maryland: A History

By Suzanne Ellery Chapelle, Jean H. Baker, Edward C. Papenfuse & Gregory A. Stiverson

Johns Hopkins University Press
Released: 2018-09-16
Paperback (384 pages)

Maryland: A History
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In 1634, two ships carrying a small group of settlers sailed into the Chesapeake Bay looking for a suitable place to dwell in the new colony of Maryland. The landscape confronting the pioneers bore no resemblance to their native country. They found no houses, no stores or markets, churches, schools, or courts, only the challenge of providing food and shelter. As the population increased, colonists in search of greater opportunity moved on, slowly spreading and expanding the settlement across what is now the great state of Maryland.

In Maryland, historians recount the stories of struggle and success of these early Marylanders and those who followed to reveal how people built modern Maryland. Originally published in 1986, this new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated. Spanning the years from the 1600s to the beginning of Governor Larry Hogan’s term of office in January 2015, the book more fully fleshes out Native American, African American, and immigrant history. It also includes completely new content on politics, arts and culture, business and industry, education, the natural environment, and the role of women as well as notable leaders in all these fields.

Maryland is heavily illustrated, with nearly two hundred photographs and illustrations (more than half of them in full color), as well as related maps, charts, and graphs, many of which are new to this book. An extensive index and a comprehensive Further Reading section provide extremely useful tools for readers looking to engage more deeply with Maryland history. Touching on major figures from George Calvert to Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman to William Donald Schaefer, this book takes readers on an unforgettable journey through the history of the Free State. It should be in every library and classroom in Maryland.

History of Maryland (Classic Reprint)

By Leonard Magruder Passano

Forgotten Books
Paperback (250 pages)

History of Maryland (Classic Reprint)
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A ny history of Maryland may well begin with the names of George and Cecilius Calvert, two names in which the State may take much pride. Qeorge and Ccdlliu t. ,- ,, ,. ,. Calvert. Foundcn io the former of these, the father, is of tiMS tale. (ig t,g J(J(.J Qf founding the colony; and to the latter, the son, is due the successful carrying out of that idea. George Calvert was born in England in the year 1582. After being educated at Oxford and traveling on the Continent he returned to England,where he married A nne Mynne. He was a great favorite of King James I. under whom he held many offices and by whom he was knighted in 1617. Two years later he was appointed Secretary of State. In the year 1624 he resigned this office at the same time that he publicly professed the Roman Catholic religion. Whether he was first converted to that faith at the time or had before held it in secret is not certainly known; but at any rate his religion did notlose george calvert him the King sfavor, for in the following year he was made Baron Haltimore of the I rish peerage, and received large estates.
(Typographical errors above are due to OCR software and don't occur in the book.)

About the Publisher

Forgotten Books is a publisher of historical writings, such as: Philosophy, Classics, Science, Religion, History, Folklore and Mythology.

Forgotten Books' Classic Reprint Series utilizes the latest technology to regenerate facsimiles of historically important writings. Careful attention has been made to accurately preserve the original format of each page whilst digitally enhancing the aged text. Read books online for free at www.forgottenbooks.org

Forgotten Maryland Cocktails:: A History of Drinking in the Free State (American Palate)

By Gregory Priebe

Arcadia Publishing
Released: 2015-05-18
Paperback (192 pages)

Forgotten Maryland Cocktails:: A History of Drinking in the Free State (American Palate)
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The Southside, Diamondback and the Preakness--Marylanders imbibe history in their native cocktails, from local favorites to little-known classics. Early residents favored fruit brandies and potent punches until the Civil War, when rye whiskey laid claim to local palates. During the golden age of the cocktail, grand hotels like Baltimore's Belvedere created smooth concoctions such as the Frozen Rye, but the dry days of Prohibition interrupted the good times. Using historic recipes with modern twists from renowned mixologists, Greg and Nicole Priebe mix up one part practical guide and three parts Maryland history and top it off with a tour of the current craft cocktail and distilling scenes.

A Taste of Maryland History: A Guide To Historic Eateries And Their Recipes (Taste of History)

By Debbie Nunley

Blair
Paperback (210 pages)

A Taste of Maryland History: A Guide To Historic Eateries And Their Recipes (Taste of History)
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Continuing their popular Taste of History series, Nunley and Elliott feature over 75 restaurants in this combination travel guide/cookbook. The book highlights restaurants located in buildings of historic interest, many of which are more than 100 years old. Old train stations; historic hotels, homes, and vacation retreats; as well as sites along the National Road are examples of some of the locales that are featured. In addition to historical background and anecdotal information, there are two or three recipes chosen by the restaurant's chef given for each entry. The book's recipe selection is evidence that there's so much more than crab in Maryland.

Interesting History of Baltimore [Maryland, USA]

By Emily Stehr

Released: 2016-12-24
Kindle Edition (341 pages)

Interesting History of Baltimore [Maryland, USA]
 
Product Description:
Interesting History of Baltimore [Maryland, USA]

Word Origin and History of Baltimore:
“City in Maryland, US, founded 1729, named for Cecilius Calvert (1605-1675), 2nd baron Baltimore, who held the charter for Maryland colony; from a small port town in southern Ireland where the family had its seat, from Irish Baile na Tighe Mor, literally ‘townland of the big house’.” http://www.dictionary.com/browse/baltimore

SS Moore, TW Jones, Francis Shallus, James Smither, William Harrison, John Draper; The traveller’s directory, or, A pocket companion: shewing the course of the main road from Philadelphia to New York, and from Philadelphia to Washington: with descriptions of the places through which it passes, and the intersections of the cross roads: illustrated with an account of such …; printed for, and published by, Mathew Carey; 1802
SS Moore, TW Jones, Francis Shallus, James Smither, William Harrison and John Draper write: “Baltimore is distant ninety-nine miles from Philadelphia, situated on the north side of Patapsco River, at a small distance from the Chesapeake. The entrance of the harbour is defended by Whetsone Fort, now called Fort McHenry. The town is built around what is called the basin, one of the finest harbors in the United States. It is divided into two parts, by Jones’s Fall Branch: over which are three wooden bridges; the western part is called ‘The Town’, and the south-eastern part ‘Fell’s Point’. Ships of 500 tons burden can come up to the point; but only small vessels can come up higher. The situation of this city is low, particularly near the water side. The streets extent east and west along the north side of the basin; these are intersected by others at right angles, except a few. The main street, Baltimore Street, is eighty feet wide, and about three quarters of a mile in length; it is handsome and well built; other streets are improving and commodious.”

A Primary Source History of the Colony of Maryland

By Liz Sonneborn

Audible Studios
Audible Audiobook

A Primary Source History of the Colony of Maryland
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Take a step back and discover the 13 colonies of Colonial America. From European exploration through the American Revolution, witness the unique history and character of each colony. Trace the role of each colony in the American Revolution and that colony's impact on the formation of our Constitution.

Maryland: This exciting book recounts the history of the colony from its founding to the challenges of the colony's early years, the religious and political upheavals, death, disease, and hard labor endured by the colonists, through the wealthy years of the Maryland tobacco plantations, discontent with England, and finally to Maryland's vote for independence in 1776.

Birds of Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia

By Bruce M. Beehler

Johns Hopkins University Press
Released: 2019-03-26
Hardcover (480 pages)

Birds of Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia
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A Great Blue Heron wades in the shallows of the Potomac River, scanning for unsuspecting prey. Sunlight turns the water translucent as a small school of fish rises to the water's surface. The heron strikes and moments later is swallowing its quarry―predation in action! This handsome Great Blue Heron is but one of the more than 400 bird species found in Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. It shares the mid-Atlantic with kingfishers, eagles, mergansers, wood warblers, and many more.

Exploring backyard birds, birds of prey, and birds of the open ocean, Smithsonian ornithologist Bruce Beehler and premier nature photographer Middleton Evans have crafted a comprehensive volume unparalleled in its beauty and captivating storytelling. Birds of Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia invites readers to experience the birds' lives as they live them: where they nest, how they forage, their various behaviors, and the natural environments they need to survive.

Beehler offers practical advice on bird-watching, including how to find, attract, and even garden for birds, as well as the best places to see them in season. He also discusses the best birding apps, websites, and gear; provides advice on planning a birding field trip; and recommends ornithological institutions that will help you cultivate a lifelong birding hobby. Finally, Beehler challenges the reader to think about conservation efforts to preserve local bird populations.

With striking color photographs of more than 400 species, this book is a bonanza for nature lovers. A wealth of images immerse the reader in the world of these wonderful creatures. Marvel at the majesty of Ospreys, navigate the ocean with storm-petrels, and nest with Mourning Doves, all while learning about the richness of the birds' lives, the complexities of their habits, and how we can help keep their populations vibrant and aloft for generations to come.

Eastern Shore Road Trips: 27 One-Day Adventures on Delmarva

By Jim Duffy

Secrets of the Eastern Shore
Released: 2016-09-07
Kindle Edition (293 pages)

Eastern Shore Road Trips: 27 One-Day Adventures on Delmarva
 
Product Description:
Much more than a travel guide, Eastern Shore Road Trips is full of tales from days gone by and insights into the character and culture of the storied Delmarva Peninsula. Join award-winning writer Jim Duffy on 27 fun excursions along the back roads, into the quaint towns, and out to the sweetest scenes on the Eastern Shore and in Southern Delaware.

Whether you're a road tripper or an armchair traveler, you'll gain a fresh sense along the way for what makes this legendary place an American treasure of the first order.

The excursions are organized into six sections: Small Towns, The Great Outdoors, Museums, Classics, Backroads, and Beaches & Resorts.
Here is the itinerary:
SMALL TOWNS
1. Berlin
2. Cambridge
3. Cape Charles
4. Chestertown
5. Easton
6. Milford

THE GREAT OUTDOORS
7. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge
8. Going Green in Caroline
9. Delaware Seashore Outdoors
10. Lower Eastern Shore of Virginia Outdoors

MUSEUMS
11. Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum
12. The Dover Ingenuity Trio
13. Way Back When on the Eastern Shore of Virginia
14. The Salisbury Two-Step

CLASSICS
15. Lighthouses
16. Skipjacks
17. Vineyards and Wineries

BACKROADS
18. The Road to Rock Hall
19. Saxis on the Sound
20. The Necks of Somerset
21. Talbot County Backroads
22. The Harriet Tubman Byway

BEACHES
23. Assateague Island
24. Chincoteague Island
25. Delaware Bay Beach Safari
26. The Ocean City Boardwalk
27. Rehoboth Beach


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