Maryland History - the history of Maryland
   
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Vacation 2 USA   >   Maryland   >   History
Vacation 2 USA   >   History   >   Maryland History

   
 

Maryland History


Before the arrival of Europeans, the area that is today Maryland was inhabited by various Native American peoples. When Europeans arrived in the early 17th century, these included the Accohannock and Powhatan on Maryland's Western shore, and Nanticoke on the eastern shore. However, the Native American peoples were relatively quickly pushed out of the state, with the last tribe, the Shawnee, leaving in the 1740s.

The first European explorers to reach Maryland where various expeditions under English, French and Spanish flags in the 16th century, however no permanent settlements were established until the following century.

In 1632, George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore (whose coat of arms appears on the Maryland flag) applied to King Charles I of England for a royal charter to establish a new province. George Calvert died before the charter could be granted, and the charter was instead granted to his son, Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore later that same year. The first settlers, led by Cecil Calvert's younger brother, Leonard, departed from England in 1633, and landed on March 25th 1634 (a date that is still commemorated in the state each year as "Maryland Day").

The new colony of Maryland was named after Henrietta Maria, the Queen consort of Charles I. The goal of the colony was to establish a safe haven for English Catholics (the Calverts themselves were Catholic), as well as to turn a profit. As a result, Maryland soon became one of only a handful of predominately Catholic regions in the English colonies in America. This was not without controversy: there were serious anti-Catholic revolts, which resulted in the temporary overthrow of the Calvert family in 1644 to 1646, and 1650 to 1658.

One interesting aspect of early Maryland history, is that the royal charter was based on an incorrect map that would have put Pennsylvania's major city of Philadelphia within Maryland. In 1750, the Penn family (who controlled Pennsylvania) and the Calvert family, agreed to engage two surveyors, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon to survey a new boundary between the two colonies, which was named the Mason-Dixon line. Seventy years later, this line would become very important as a result of the Missouri Compromise of 1820: the expansion of slavery in the United States was only permitted South of this line.

During the American Revolution (1775 to 1783), Maryland, like many other colonies, was at first reluctant to split from Britain. Although no major battles took place within Maryland, the state did contribute important troops to the Continental Army, and it is probably from this contribution that the state gets the nickname "Old Line State". Additionally, the Continental Congress met for a few months in Baltimore in 1776 to 1777, and Annapolis also served as the US capital for just over seven months in 1783 to 1784.

Following the American Revolution the establishment of new permanent national capital was one of the first issues for the new government to address. A number of candidate cities were considered including Annapolis, but eventually it was decided to build a new capital (Washington D.C.). Maryland ceded approximately 61 square miles and Virginia approximately 39 square miles, to the federal government for this purpose (although Virginia's contribution was returned in 1846).

During the War of 1812, Maryland was the scene of two important battles. In 1814, the British defeated the Americans at the Battle of Bladensburg, and as result were able to capture Washington D.C. and burn many of the public buildings. The British navy also bombarded Fort McHenry (which defended Baltimore for 25 hours, but were unable to force its surrender: events there inspired Francis Scott Key to write "The Star-Spangled Banner" which was later to become the United States' national anthem.

During the American Civil War (1861 to 1865), Maryland found itself in a difficult position as both a slave state and one of the border states that straddled both North and South. There was considerable popular support for the Confederate cause, but Maryland did not secede from the Union thanks to swift and firm action by Abraham Lincolm, and the eventual support of Governor Thomas H. Hicks (who had initially favored neutrality and preventing Union troops from crossing the state). Maryland would eventually provide about 25,000 troops for the Confederacy (mostly serving in the Army of North Virginia), and about 60,000 men for the Union (mostly serving garrison duty within the state).

Maryland was crossed by troops of both sides during the Civil War. The most important battle occurring in the state being the Battle of Antienam, which was fought on September 17th 1862 near Sharpsburg. The battle, fought between about 87,000 men on the Union side and 40,000 on the Confederate side, although tactically a draw, effectively ended Robert E. Lee's invasion of the North.

One of the most noteable events of the 20th century that took place in Maryland, was the Great Baltimore Fire of 1904. The fire burned for over 30 hours on February 7th and February 8th, and destroyed more than 1,526 buildings across 70 city blocks. As a result of the fire, more than 35,000 people were left unemployed.

Like many former slave states, Maryland struggled with civil rights issues for long after the Civil War. For example, in the early 20th century there was several legislative attempts to disenfranchise African-Americans using property qualifications. On a brighter note, the 1935 case of Murray v. Pearson et al resulted in the integration of the University of Maryland Law School. This was the first time that any court had overturned the 1896 Supreme Court decision (Plessy v. Ferguson) approving racial segregation according to the "separate but equal" doctrine (although this particular new ruling had no authority outside Maryland).


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Maryland, A Middle Temperament: 1634-1980 (Maryland History)

By Dr. Robert J. Brugger

Brand: The Johns Hopkins University Press
Hardcover (864 pages)

Maryland, A Middle Temperament: 1634-1980 (Maryland History)
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Maryland: A Middle Temperament explores the ironies, contradictions, and compromises that give "America's oldest border state" its special character. Extensively illustrated and accompanied by bibliography, maps, charts, and tables, Robert Brugger's vivid account of the state's political, economic, social, and cultural heritage--from the outfitting of Cecil Calvert's expedition to the opening of Baltimore's Harborplace--is rich in the issues and personalities that make up Maryland's story and explain its "middle temperament."

History of Maryland (Classic Reprint)

By Leonard Magruder Passano

Forgotten Books
Paperback (250 pages)

History of Maryland (Classic Reprint)
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A ny history of Maryland may well begin with the names of George and Cecilius Calvert, two names in which the State may take much pride. Qeorge and Ccdlliu t. ,- ,, ,. ,. Calvert. Foundcn io the former of these, the father, is of tiMS tale. (ig t,g J(J(.J Qf founding the colony; and to the latter, the son, is due the successful carrying out of that idea. George Calvert was born in England in the year 1582. After being educated at Oxford and traveling on the Continent he returned to England,where he married A nne Mynne. He was a great favorite of King James I. under whom he held many offices and by whom he was knighted in 1617. Two years later he was appointed Secretary of State. In the year 1624 he resigned this office at the same time that he publicly professed the Roman Catholic religion. Whether he was first converted to that faith at the time or had before held it in secret is not certainly known; but at any rate his religion did notlose george calvert him the King sfavor, for in the following year he was made Baron Haltimore of the I rish peerage, and received large estates.
(Typographical errors above are due to OCR software and don't occur in the book.)

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Forgotten Books is a publisher of historical writings, such as: Philosophy, Classics, Science, Religion, History, Folklore and Mythology.

Forgotten Books' Classic Reprint Series utilizes the latest technology to regenerate facsimiles of historically important writings. Careful attention has been made to accurately preserve the original format of each page whilst digitally enhancing the aged text. Read books online for free at www.forgottenbooks.org

Maryland: A History 1632-1974

By Richard and William Lloyd Fox, Editors Walsh

Maryland Historical Press
Hardcover (935 pages)

Maryland: A History 1632-1974
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History of Maryland; from its first settlement in 1634, to the year 1848

By James McSherry 1819-1869

Library of Congress
Paperback (426 pages)

History of Maryland; from its first settlement in 1634, to the year 1848
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This reproduction was printed from a digital file created at the Library of Congress as part of an extensive scanning effort started with a generous donation from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. The Library is pleased to offer much of its public domain holdings free of charge online and at a modest price in this printed format. Seeing these older volumes from our collections rediscovered by new generations of readers renews our own passion for books and scholarship.

History and Roster of Maryland Volunteers, War of 1861-5, Volume 1

Maryland Commission on Publication of T
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History and Roster of Maryland Volunteers, War of 1861-5, Volume 1
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  • History and Roster of Maryland Volunteers War of 1861 5 Volume 1
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This is a reproduction of a book published before 1923. This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. that were either part of the original artifact, or were introduced by the scanning process. We believe this work is culturally important, and despite the imperfections, have elected to bring it back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide. We appreciate your understanding of the imperfections in the preservation process, and hope you enjoy this valuable book.

The Maryland Colony (True Books: American History (Paperback))

By Kevin Cunningham

Scholastic
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The Maryland Colony (True Books: American History (Paperback))
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A True Book-The Thirteen Colonies

Are you thrilled by true adventure stories? do you wonder how our founding fathers conquered the wilds of North America to create the United States? You'll experience it all in these books that tell the story of the brave men and women who escaped tyranny from across the ocean to forge a new world in 13 colonies that led to the birth of the United States of America.

History of Western Maryland Vol. I

By J. Thomas Scharf

Brand: Wildside Press
Paperback (910 pages)

History of Western Maryland Vol. I
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Visiting the six counties of Western Maryland, spending much time in each district, examining ancient newspapers, musty manuscripts, family, church and society records, conversing with the aged inhabitants, and collecting from them orally many interesting facts never before published, and which otherwise, in all probability, would soon have been lost altogether. The first in a two Volume set.

Three Cheers for the Chesapeake!: History of the 4th Maryland Light Artillery Battery in the Civil War

By Rick Richter

Schiffer Military History
Hardcover (240 pages)

Three Cheers for the Chesapeake!: History of the 4th Maryland Light Artillery Battery in the Civil War
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Illustrated with previously unpublished photos, letters, documents, and diary entries, the untoldstory of the Chesapeake Artillery comes to light. Comprised chiefly of men who lived near the shores of its namesake bay, the Chesapeake Artillery was the last Confederate battery organized from the state of Maryland. It was also by far the smallest, with barely more than half the average enrollment of other Maryland batteries in the Confederate army. Despite its size, the unit was frequently cited for its bravery and efficiency, including by Stonewall Jackson. This is the history of the unit, from its formation through all its battles with the Army of Northern Virginia until the surrender at Appomattox, where only 13 men remained. A unique statistical analysis of census and military records data highlights its characteristics. Included is a complete roster of all the men who served in the unit.

Your Maryland: Little-Known Histories from the Shores of the Chesapeake to the Foothills of the Allegheny Mountains

By Ric Cottom

Johns Hopkins University Press
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Your Maryland: Little-Known Histories from the Shores of the Chesapeake to the Foothills of the Allegheny Mountains
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" Good evening, I’m Ric Cottom. Welcome to Your Maryland." Since 2002, when he first delivered his now-classic radio segment on Maryland history, Ric Cottom has narrated hundreds of little-known human interest stories. Collected here are 72 of his favorite on-air pieces, enhanced with beautiful papercut illustrations by Baltimore artist Annie Howe. From accused witches and the murderous career of gunsmith John Dandy through tales of Johnny U and the greatest game ever played, Your Maryland covers nearly four centuries of the Free State’s heroes and scoundrels.

Entertaining listeners of all ages while sparking their interest in the past, Cottom’s beloved Your Maryland is a unique blend of carefully researched regional history and narrative nonfiction. He deftly emphasizes the human dimension of Maryland’s colorful past: its athletes (two- and four-legged), beautiful spies, brilliant writers, misunderstood pirates, and ghosts. All of that color, suspense, and humor―as well as the author’s unusual talent for discovering interesting historical facts and personages―is part of your Maryland.

Secrets of Garrett County: Little-Known Stories & Hidden History of Maryland's Westernmost County (Volume 1)

By James Rada Jr.

Legacy Publishing
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Secrets of Garrett County: Little-Known Stories & Hidden History of Maryland s Westernmost County (Volume 1)
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Garrett County is known for its natural beauty, but hidden in the valleys, beneath the ground in coal mines, and in the attics of homes are true stories of crimes, cover-ups, legends, and life in Garrett County. * Learn about the grave for a general no one can identify. * Read about how the government dosed unknowing citizens with LSD at Deep Creek Lake. * Decipher clues to the hidden silver mine in the county. * Discover the photographic world of Leo J. Beachy. * Find out where Albert Einstein took a secret vacation. * And dozens more true stories. Secrets of Garrett County: Little-Known Stories & Hidden History of Maryland's Westernmost County tells stories of coal mining and railroads, crime and war, interesting people and unusual incidents. These are the types of stories that you won't read about in history textbooks.


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