Maryland History - the history of Maryland
   
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Vacation 2 USA   >   Maryland   >   History
Vacation 2 USA   >   History   >   Maryland History

   
 

Maryland History


Before the arrival of Europeans, the area that is today Maryland was inhabited by various Native American peoples. When Europeans arrived in the early 17th century, these included the Accohannock and Powhatan on Maryland's Western shore, and Nanticoke on the eastern shore. However, the Native American peoples were relatively quickly pushed out of the state, with the last tribe, the Shawnee, leaving in the 1740s.

The first European explorers to reach Maryland where various expeditions under English, French and Spanish flags in the 16th century, however no permanent settlements were established until the following century.

In 1632, George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore (whose coat of arms appears on the Maryland flag) applied to King Charles I of England for a royal charter to establish a new province. George Calvert died before the charter could be granted, and the charter was instead granted to his son, Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore later that same year. The first settlers, led by Cecil Calvert's younger brother, Leonard, departed from England in 1633, and landed on March 25th 1634 (a date that is still commemorated in the state each year as "Maryland Day").

The new colony of Maryland was named after Henrietta Maria, the Queen consort of Charles I. The goal of the colony was to establish a safe haven for English Catholics (the Calverts themselves were Catholic), as well as to turn a profit. As a result, Maryland soon became one of only a handful of predominately Catholic regions in the English colonies in America. This was not without controversy: there were serious anti-Catholic revolts, which resulted in the temporary overthrow of the Calvert family in 1644 to 1646, and 1650 to 1658.

One interesting aspect of early Maryland history, is that the royal charter was based on an incorrect map that would have put Pennsylvania's major city of Philadelphia within Maryland. In 1750, the Penn family (who controlled Pennsylvania) and the Calvert family, agreed to engage two surveyors, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon to survey a new boundary between the two colonies, which was named the Mason-Dixon line. Seventy years later, this line would become very important as a result of the Missouri Compromise of 1820: the expansion of slavery in the United States was only permitted South of this line.

During the American Revolution (1775 to 1783), Maryland, like many other colonies, was at first reluctant to split from Britain. Although no major battles took place within Maryland, the state did contribute important troops to the Continental Army, and it is probably from this contribution that the state gets the nickname "Old Line State". Additionally, the Continental Congress met for a few months in Baltimore in 1776 to 1777, and Annapolis also served as the US capital for just over seven months in 1783 to 1784.

Following the American Revolution the establishment of new permanent national capital was one of the first issues for the new government to address. A number of candidate cities were considered including Annapolis, but eventually it was decided to build a new capital (Washington D.C.). Maryland ceded approximately 61 square miles and Virginia approximately 39 square miles, to the federal government for this purpose (although Virginia's contribution was returned in 1846).

During the War of 1812, Maryland was the scene of two important battles. In 1814, the British defeated the Americans at the Battle of Bladensburg, and as result were able to capture Washington D.C. and burn many of the public buildings. The British navy also bombarded Fort McHenry (which defended Baltimore for 25 hours, but were unable to force its surrender: events there inspired Francis Scott Key to write "The Star-Spangled Banner" which was later to become the United States' national anthem.

During the American Civil War (1861 to 1865), Maryland found itself in a difficult position as both a slave state and one of the border states that straddled both North and South. There was considerable popular support for the Confederate cause, but Maryland did not secede from the Union thanks to swift and firm action by Abraham Lincolm, and the eventual support of Governor Thomas H. Hicks (who had initially favored neutrality and preventing Union troops from crossing the state). Maryland would eventually provide about 25,000 troops for the Confederacy (mostly serving in the Army of North Virginia), and about 60,000 men for the Union (mostly serving garrison duty within the state).

Maryland was crossed by troops of both sides during the Civil War. The most important battle occurring in the state being the Battle of Antienam, which was fought on September 17th 1862 near Sharpsburg. The battle, fought between about 87,000 men on the Union side and 40,000 on the Confederate side, although tactically a draw, effectively ended Robert E. Lee's invasion of the North.

One of the most noteable events of the 20th century that took place in Maryland, was the Great Baltimore Fire of 1904. The fire burned for over 30 hours on February 7th and February 8th, and destroyed more than 1,526 buildings across 70 city blocks. As a result of the fire, more than 35,000 people were left unemployed.

Like many former slave states, Maryland struggled with civil rights issues for long after the Civil War. For example, in the early 20th century there was several legislative attempts to disenfranchise African-Americans using property qualifications. On a brighter note, the 1935 case of Murray v. Pearson et al resulted in the integration of the University of Maryland Law School. This was the first time that any court had overturned the 1896 Supreme Court decision (Plessy v. Ferguson) approving racial segregation according to the "separate but equal" doctrine (although this particular new ruling had no authority outside Maryland).


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Maryland, A Middle Temperament: 1634-1980 (Maryland Paperback Bookshelf)

By Robert J. Brugger

Brand: Johns Hopkins University Press
Paperback (864 pages)

Maryland, A Middle Temperament: 1634-1980 (Maryland Paperback Bookshelf)
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Maryland: A Middle Temperament explores the ironies, contradictions, and compromises that give "America's oldest border state" its special character. Extensively illustrated and accompanied by bibliography, maps, charts, and tables, Robert Brugger's vivid account of the state's political, economic, social, and cultural heritage―from the outfitting of Cecil Calvert's expedition to the opening of Baltimore's Harborplace―is rich in the issues and personalities that make up Maryland's story and explain its "middle temperament."

Your Maryland: Little-Known Histories from the Shores of the Chesapeake to the Foothills of the Allegheny Mountains

By Ric Cottom

Johns Hopkins University Press
Paperback (256 pages)

Your Maryland: Little-Known Histories from the Shores of the Chesapeake to the Foothills of the Allegheny Mountains
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"Good evening, I’m Ric Cottom. Welcome to Your Maryland." Since 2002, when he first delivered his now-classic radio segment on Maryland history, Ric Cottom has narrated hundreds of little-known human interest stories. Collected here are 72 of his favorite on-air pieces, enhanced with beautiful papercut illustrations by Baltimore artist Annie Howe. From accused witches and the murderous career of gunsmith John Dandy through tales of Johnny U and the greatest game ever played, Your Maryland covers nearly four centuries of the Free State’s heroes and scoundrels.

Entertaining listeners of all ages while sparking their interest in the past, Cottom’s beloved Your Maryland is a unique blend of carefully researched regional history and narrative nonfiction. He deftly emphasizes the human dimension of Maryland’s colorful past: its athletes (two- and four-legged), beautiful spies, brilliant writers, misunderstood pirates, and ghosts. All of that color, suspense, and humor―as well as the author’s unusual talent for discovering interesting historical facts and personages―is part of your Maryland.

History of Maryland (Classic Reprint)

By Leonard Magruder Passano

Forgotten Books
Paperback (250 pages)

History of Maryland (Classic Reprint)
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A ny history of Maryland may well begin with the names of George and Cecilius Calvert, two names in which the State may take much pride. Qeorge and Ccdlliu t. ,- ,, ,. ,. Calvert. Foundcn io the former of these, the father, is of tiMS tale. (ig t,g J(J(.J Qf founding the colony; and to the latter, the son, is due the successful carrying out of that idea. George Calvert was born in England in the year 1582. After being educated at Oxford and traveling on the Continent he returned to England,where he married A nne Mynne. He was a great favorite of King James I. under whom he held many offices and by whom he was knighted in 1617. Two years later he was appointed Secretary of State. In the year 1624 he resigned this office at the same time that he publicly professed the Roman Catholic religion. Whether he was first converted to that faith at the time or had before held it in secret is not certainly known; but at any rate his religion did notlose george calvert him the King sfavor, for in the following year he was made Baron Haltimore of the I rish peerage, and received large estates.
(Typographical errors above are due to OCR software and don't occur in the book.)

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Forgotten Books is a publisher of historical writings, such as: Philosophy, Classics, Science, Religion, History, Folklore and Mythology.

Forgotten Books' Classic Reprint Series utilizes the latest technology to regenerate facsimiles of historically important writings. Careful attention has been made to accurately preserve the original format of each page whilst digitally enhancing the aged text. Read books online for free at www.forgottenbooks.org

Lost Baltimore

By Paul Kelsey Williams

Brand: Pavilion
Hardcover (144 pages)

Lost Baltimore
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A celebration of the cherished parts of Baltimore that are no longer
 
Baltimore today is visited by millions of tourists who come to see the world-famous Inner Harbor, sample mouth-watering blue crabs, take in an Orioles game at legendary Camden Yards, or explore the many cultural and higher education institutions. Locals, meanwhile, enjoy living in a city that is large enough to provide great restaurants and plenty of special events, while it retains its small-town attitude that has earned it its “Charm City” nickname. However, many locals and tourists may not know that Baltimore was once a bustling port city where manufacturing, shipping, and shipbuilding dominated the industrial center of downtown Baltimore.
 
Lost Baltimore features rarely published images of homes, buildings, industrial ports, and other commercial entities that have been razed, damaged, and significantly altered over the years, including the large estates of north Baltimore, Merchants’ Exchange, Union Station, Electric Park, Rennert Hotel, Light Street Wharves, downtown theaters, Memorial Stadium, Hutzler’s Department Store, and Bethlehem Steel. Also included are the devastating Great Baltimore Fire of 1904 and the iconic buildings that perished, such as the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad headquarters, the Sun Iron Building, and the News American Building.
 
Lost Baltimore also covers important historical events that have shaped the physical landscape and societal fabric of Baltimore—the heartbreaking move by the Baltimore Colts in 1984, Baltimore’s early dominance as the headquarters of national political conventions, Prohibition’s effect on the German breweries, the city’s changing industrial and commercial makeup, as well as some of the most recent hotly contested historical preservation battles. Open these pages and take a step back in time to reveal the Baltimore that once was.

Maryland History in Prints (Maryland Historical Society)

By Laura Rice

Brand: The Maryland Historical Society
Hardcover (416 pages)

Maryland History in Prints (Maryland Historical Society)
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A stunning visual accompaniment to the history of the state with 330 full color reproductions from the glory days of Maryland printmaking, with accompanying essays.

A Taste of Maryland History: A Guide To Historic Eateries And Their Recipes (Taste of History)

By Debbie Nunley

Blair
Paperback (210 pages)

A Taste of Maryland History: A Guide To Historic Eateries And Their Recipes (Taste of History)
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Continuing their popular Taste of History series, Nunley and Elliott feature over 75 restaurants in this combination travel guide/cookbook. The book highlights restaurants located in buildings of historic interest, many of which are more than 100 years old. Old train stations; historic hotels, homes, and vacation retreats; as well as sites along the National Road are examples of some of the locales that are featured. In addition to historical background and anecdotal information, there are two or three recipes chosen by the restaurant's chef given for each entry. The book's recipe selection is evidence that there's so much more than crab in Maryland.

Baltimore: A Not Too Serious History (Maryland Paperback Bookshelf)

By Letitia Stockett

Brand: Johns Hopkins University Press
Paperback (384 pages)

Baltimore: A Not Too Serious History (Maryland Paperback Bookshelf)
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A teacher of English and English History at the Friends School in Baltimore, Letitia Stockett was inspired to write her whimsical history of the city when a friend told her that nothing much had been done in the way of a history of Baltimore since J. Thomas Scharf's The Chronicles of Baltimore (1874). Rising to the challenge, she spent all of her spare time on the book, telling curious friends and family merely that she "had work to do." Baltimore: A Not Too Serious History was the result, a charming and anecdotal account of the city's history that is as fresh today as it was when first published in 1928.

"Would you know Baltimore? Then put deliberately out of your mind the fact that the town makes more straw hats than any other city in the world. Aesthetically speaking, that is a fearsome thought. Forget, too, that Baltimore is the centre of the oyster packing industry. Worse, far worse than a straw hat is a packed oyster; Baltimoreans ought to know better. In truth they do; they export the tinned bivalve to the unsuspecting, unsophisticated Westerner. These two enterprises are worthy and profitable, but a knowledge of these facts will not help you understand this city any more truly than the study of those long lists of products once diligently conned in school gave you an inkling of Tunis, Singapore and Wilkes-Barre."―from Baltimore: A Not too Serious History

The Maryland Colony (True Books: American History (Paperback))

By Kevin Cunningham

Scholastic
Paperback (48 pages)

The Maryland Colony (True Books: American History (Paperback))
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A True Book-The Thirteen Colonies

Are you thrilled by true adventure stories? do you wonder how our founding fathers conquered the wilds of North America to create the United States? You'll experience it all in these books that tell the story of the brave men and women who escaped tyranny from across the ocean to forge a new world in 13 colonies that led to the birth of the United States of America.

Maryland, My Maryland: The Cultural Cleansing of a Small Southern State

By Joyce Bennett

Shotwell Publishing LLC
Paperback (214 pages)

Maryland, My Maryland: The Cultural Cleansing of a Small Southern State
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MARYLAND WAS FOUNDED as a plantation colony like Virginia and its way of life did not differ greatly from Virginia’s. Everybody knows that the “Star-Spangled Banner” was written by Francis Scott Key as he watched the British attack on Fort McHenry in Baltimore harbour during the War of 1812. But few know that in 1861 Francis Key Howard, the grandson of Francis Scott Key, wrote this of his grandfather: The flag which then he so proudly hailed, I saw waving at the same place over the victims as vulgar and brutal a despotism as modern times have witnessed. Howard was one of the many Marylanders who were political prisoners of Abraham Lincoln, arrested to prevent the people of Maryland from ever having an opportunity to vote on secession. As soon as Union occupiers departed at the end of the War for Southern Independence, Maryland elected conservative Southern Democrats to office, a practice that continued well into the 20th century. Joyce Bennett is a patriot holding a last outpost of the real Maryland. She knows the history and original culture of her commonwealth. She has watched that pleasant and very American culture — its speech, manners, cuisine, attitudes, and traditions — being vigourously wiped out by newcomers who have turned Maryland into a mere minor part of the northeastern megalopolis. The things sadly lost are the things that constitute civilization and create community. ______ P.S. - This book was originally published by the author under the title Letters from the Outpost. P.P.S. - This title is enrolled in Kindle MatchBook. FREE if print edition is purchased on Amazon.

Maryland (True Books: My United States)

By Vicky Franchino

Childrens Pr
Paperback (48 pages)

Maryland (True Books: My United States)
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Though it is one of the smallest states in the country, Maryland has a lot to offer. Readers will get a taste of the local lifestyle as they explore the ins and outs of this Mid-Atlantic state. Theyll also learn about its earliest settlement, its important role in U.S. history, the many famous people who call Maryland home, and more.


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