Maryland History - the history of Maryland
   
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Vacation 2 USA   >   Maryland   >   History
Vacation 2 USA   >   History   >   Maryland History

   
 

Maryland History


Before the arrival of Europeans, the area that is today Maryland was inhabited by various Native American peoples. When Europeans arrived in the early 17th century, these included the Accohannock and Powhatan on Maryland's Western shore, and Nanticoke on the eastern shore. However, the Native American peoples were relatively quickly pushed out of the state, with the last tribe, the Shawnee, leaving in the 1740s.

The first European explorers to reach Maryland where various expeditions under English, French and Spanish flags in the 16th century, however no permanent settlements were established until the following century.

In 1632, George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore (whose coat of arms appears on the Maryland flag) applied to King Charles I of England for a royal charter to establish a new province. George Calvert died before the charter could be granted, and the charter was instead granted to his son, Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore later that same year. The first settlers, led by Cecil Calvert's younger brother, Leonard, departed from England in 1633, and landed on March 25th 1634 (a date that is still commemorated in the state each year as "Maryland Day").

The new colony of Maryland was named after Henrietta Maria, the Queen consort of Charles I. The goal of the colony was to establish a safe haven for English Catholics (the Calverts themselves were Catholic), as well as to turn a profit. As a result, Maryland soon became one of only a handful of predominately Catholic regions in the English colonies in America. This was not without controversy: there were serious anti-Catholic revolts, which resulted in the temporary overthrow of the Calvert family in 1644 to 1646, and 1650 to 1658.

One interesting aspect of early Maryland history, is that the royal charter was based on an incorrect map that would have put Pennsylvania's major city of Philadelphia within Maryland. In 1750, the Penn family (who controlled Pennsylvania) and the Calvert family, agreed to engage two surveyors, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon to survey a new boundary between the two colonies, which was named the Mason-Dixon line. Seventy years later, this line would become very important as a result of the Missouri Compromise of 1820: the expansion of slavery in the United States was only permitted South of this line.

During the American Revolution (1775 to 1783), Maryland, like many other colonies, was at first reluctant to split from Britain. Although no major battles took place within Maryland, the state did contribute important troops to the Continental Army, and it is probably from this contribution that the state gets the nickname "Old Line State". Additionally, the Continental Congress met for a few months in Baltimore in 1776 to 1777, and Annapolis also served as the US capital for just over seven months in 1783 to 1784.

Following the American Revolution the establishment of new permanent national capital was one of the first issues for the new government to address. A number of candidate cities were considered including Annapolis, but eventually it was decided to build a new capital (Washington D.C.). Maryland ceded approximately 61 square miles and Virginia approximately 39 square miles, to the federal government for this purpose (although Virginia's contribution was returned in 1846).

During the War of 1812, Maryland was the scene of two important battles. In 1814, the British defeated the Americans at the Battle of Bladensburg, and as result were able to capture Washington D.C. and burn many of the public buildings. The British navy also bombarded Fort McHenry (which defended Baltimore for 25 hours, but were unable to force its surrender: events there inspired Francis Scott Key to write "The Star-Spangled Banner" which was later to become the United States' national anthem.

During the American Civil War (1861 to 1865), Maryland found itself in a difficult position as both a slave state and one of the border states that straddled both North and South. There was considerable popular support for the Confederate cause, but Maryland did not secede from the Union thanks to swift and firm action by Abraham Lincolm, and the eventual support of Governor Thomas H. Hicks (who had initially favored neutrality and preventing Union troops from crossing the state). Maryland would eventually provide about 25,000 troops for the Confederacy (mostly serving in the Army of North Virginia), and about 60,000 men for the Union (mostly serving garrison duty within the state).

Maryland was crossed by troops of both sides during the Civil War. The most important battle occurring in the state being the Battle of Antienam, which was fought on September 17th 1862 near Sharpsburg. The battle, fought between about 87,000 men on the Union side and 40,000 on the Confederate side, although tactically a draw, effectively ended Robert E. Lee's invasion of the North.

One of the most noteable events of the 20th century that took place in Maryland, was the Great Baltimore Fire of 1904. The fire burned for over 30 hours on February 7th and February 8th, and destroyed more than 1,526 buildings across 70 city blocks. As a result of the fire, more than 35,000 people were left unemployed.

Like many former slave states, Maryland struggled with civil rights issues for long after the Civil War. For example, in the early 20th century there was several legislative attempts to disenfranchise African-Americans using property qualifications. On a brighter note, the 1935 case of Murray v. Pearson et al resulted in the integration of the University of Maryland Law School. This was the first time that any court had overturned the 1896 Supreme Court decision (Plessy v. Ferguson) approving racial segregation according to the "separate but equal" doctrine (although this particular new ruling had no authority outside Maryland).


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Your Maryland: Little-Known Histories from the Shores of the Chesapeake to the Foothills of the Allegheny Mountains

By Ric Cottom

Johns Hopkins University Press
Paperback (256 pages)

Your Maryland: Little-Known Histories from the Shores of the Chesapeake to the Foothills of the Allegheny Mountains
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Four centuries of Maryland’s history in one colorful and dramatic volume.

"Good evening, I’m Ric Cottom. Welcome to Your Maryland." Since 2002, when he first delivered his now-classic radio segment on Maryland history, Ric Cottom has narrated hundreds of little-known human interest stories. Collected here are 72 of his favorite on-air pieces, enhanced with beautiful papercut illustrations by Baltimore artist Annie Howe. From accused witches and the murderous career of gunsmith John Dandy through tales of Johnny U and the greatest game ever played, Your Maryland covers nearly four centuries of the Free State’s heroes and scoundrels.

Entertaining listeners of all ages while sparking their interest in the past, Cottom’s beloved Your Maryland is a unique blend of carefully researched regional history and narrative nonfiction. He deftly emphasizes the human dimension of Maryland’s colorful past: its athletes (two- and four-legged), beautiful spies, brilliant writers, misunderstood pirates, and ghosts. All of that color, suspense, and humor―as well as the author’s unusual talent for discovering interesting historical facts and personages―is part of your Maryland.

Maryland: A History

By Suzanne Ellery Chapelle, Jean H. Baker, Edward C. Papenfuse & Gregory A. Stiverson

Johns Hopkins University Press
Released: 2018-09-16
Paperback (384 pages)

Maryland: A History
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An engaging and accessible introductory history of the people, places, culture, and politics that shaped Maryland.

In 1634, two ships carrying a small group of settlers sailed into the Chesapeake Bay looking for a suitable place to dwell in the new colony of Maryland. The landscape confronting the pioneers bore no resemblance to their native country. They found no houses, no stores or markets, churches, schools, or courts, only the challenge of providing food and shelter. As the population increased, colonists in search of greater opportunity moved on, slowly spreading and expanding the settlement across what is now the great state of Maryland.

In Maryland, historians recount the stories of struggle and success of these early Marylanders and those who followed to reveal how people built modern Maryland. Originally published in 1986, this new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated. Spanning the years from the 1600s to the beginning of Governor Larry Hogan’s term of office in January 2015, the book more fully fleshes out Native American, African American, and immigrant history. It also includes completely new content on politics, arts and culture, business and industry, education, the natural environment, and the role of women as well as notable leaders in all these fields.

Maryland is heavily illustrated, with nearly two hundred photographs and illustrations (more than half of them in full color), as well as related maps, charts, and graphs, many of which are new to this book. An extensive index and a comprehensive Further Reading section provide extremely useful tools for readers looking to engage more deeply with Maryland history. Touching on major figures from George Calvert to Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman to William Donald Schaefer, this book takes readers on an unforgettable journey through the history of the Free State. It should be in every library and classroom in Maryland.

Maryland in the Civil War (Images of America)

By Mark A. Swank

Arcadia Publishing
Released: 2013-11-25
Paperback (128 pages)

Maryland in the Civil War (Images of America)
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As a border state between the North and South during the Civil War, Maryland’s loyalties were strong for both sides. The first casualties of the war occurred during the Baltimore Riot of April 19, 1861, when members of the 6th Massachusetts Regiment were attacked by Confederate supporters while traversing through the city on their way to protect Washington, DC, from attack. Ten days later, Maryland chose not to secede from the Union by a vote of 53-13. On September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg, one of the largest and bloodiest battles of the Civil War took place at “Bloody Antietam.” At the end of the day, nearly one in four men would be a casualty of the battle, making it the bloodiest day in American military history. There were over 75 skirmishes, raids, and major battles that took place in Maryland during the Civil War. Through vintage photographs, Maryland in the Civil War shares the state’s rich military heritage.

History of Maryland (Classic Reprint)

By Leonard Magruder Passano

Forgotten Books
Paperback (250 pages)

History of Maryland (Classic Reprint)
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Mysteries & Lore of Western Maryland: Snallygasters, Dogmen, and other Mountain Tales (American Legends)

By Susan Fair

The History Press
Released: 2013-07-16
Paperback (128 pages)

Mysteries & Lore of Western Maryland: Snallygasters, Dogmen, and other Mountain Tales (American Legends)
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In the shadows of the quiet mountain towns of Western Maryland, strange creatures are said to lurk in the woods while phantoms wander the foothills. The Hagerstown clock tower is reportedly haunted by the ghost of a young artist killed during the Civil War, while the low summit of South Mountain was once host to a mysterious spell-caster, the Wizard Zittle. Farther west, tales of legendary hunter Meshach Browning echo among the Allegany Mountains while visitors to Deep Creek Lake may feel the chilling presence of monks who never left their former monastery. From the 1909 hoax of the monstrous Snallygaster that terrorized the Middletown Valley to the doglike Dwayyo that was spotted near Frederick in 1965, local historian Susan Fair rounds up the bizarre beasts, odd characters and unsolved mysteries that color the legends and lore of Western Maryland.

Beer in Maryland: A History of Breweries Since Colonial Times

By Maureen O’'Prey

McFarland & Company
Released: 2018-02-19
Paperback (362 pages)

Beer in Maryland: A History of Breweries Since Colonial Times
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This history begins with the earliest brewers in the colony--women--revealing details of the Old Line State's brewing families and their methods. Stories never before told trace the effects of war, competition, the Industrial Revolution, Prohibition and changing political philosophies on the brewing industry. Some brewers persevered through crime, scandal and intrigue to play key roles in building their communities.
Today's craft brewers face a number of very different challenges, from monopolistic macro breweries and trademark quandaries to hop shortages, while attempting to establish their own legacies.

History of western Maryland. Being a history of Frederick, Montgomery, Carroll, Washington, Allegany, and Garrett counties from the earliest period to ... of their representative men Volume 1

By J. Thomas Scharf

Released: 2012-04-08
Kindle Edition (3187 pages)

History of western Maryland. Being a history of Frederick, Montgomery, Carroll, Washington, Allegany, and Garrett counties from the earliest period to ... of their representative men Volume 1
 
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PREFACE.

The preparation of such a work as the " History of Western Maryland" imposes a vast responsibility and an immense amount of labor. Years of study devoted to the subjects embraced in it, the encouragement of friends, and the enterprise of the liberal publisher induced the author to undertake the work.

In the compilation of this history no authority of importance has been overlooked. The author hiis carefully examined every source of information open to him, and has availed himself of every fact that could throw new light upon, or impart additional interest to, the subject under consideration. Besides consulting the most reliable records and authorities, over fifteen thousand communications were addressed to persons supposed to be in possession of facts or information calculated to add value to the work. Recourse has not only been had to the valuable libraries of Baltimore, Annapolis, Frederick, and Hagerstown, but the author and his agents have visited personally the entire territory embraced in the six counties of Western Maryland, spending much time in each district, examining ancient newspapers, musty manuscripts, family, church, and society records, conversing with the aged inhabitants, and collecting from them orally many interesting facts never before published, and which otherwise, in all probability, would soon have been lost altogether. In addition to the material partly used in the preparation of his " Chronicles" and " History-of Baltimore City and County" and " History of Maryland," the author has consulted an immense number of pampiilets, consisting of county and town documents, reports of societies, associations, corporations, and historical discoui-ses, and, in short, everything of a fugitive character that might in any way illustrate the history of Western Maryland. From these and a large collection of newspapers (more particularly a nearly complete file of the Hagerstown Torcldight, Mail, Spy, and Herald, which were kindly loaned by Messrs. Mittag, Bell & Williams, and E. W. Mealey) great assistance has been derived.

With the aid of Prof. Philip R. Uhler, the topography and geology, as well as the geography, of Western Maryland have received the attention which their importance demands. Sketches of the rise, progress, and present condition of the various religious denominations, professions, political parties, and charitable and benevolent institutions, societies, and orders form a conspicuous feature of the work. Manufacturing, commercial, and agricultural interests have also a prominent place. An account of the county school system is also given, and a history of the various institutions of learning of which Western Maryland has every reason to be proud. Many of the facts recorded, both statistical and historical, may seem trivial or tediously minute to the general reader, and yet such facts have a local interest and sometimes a real importance.

An honest effort has been made to do justice to both sections in the relation of such events of the civil war as come within the proper scope of a purely local history. The author has made





no attempt to obtrude his own political views upon the reader, and has constantly kept in mind the purpose that has guided his labors,—to present a work free from sectional or partisan bias which shall be acceptable to the general public.

Considerable space has been given to biographies of leading and representative men, living and dead, who have borne an active part in the various enterprises of life, and who have become closely identified with the history of Frederick, Washington, Montgomery, Allegany, Carroll, and Garrett Counties. The achievements of the living must not be forgotten, nor must the memories of those who have passed away be allowed to perish. It is the imperative duty of the historian to chronicle their public and private efforts to advance the great interests of society. Their deeds are to be recorded for the benefit of those who follow them

B is for Blue Crab: A Maryland Alphabet (Discover America State by State)

By Shirley C. Menendez

Sleeping Bear Press
Released: 2004-09-22
Hardcover (40 pages)

B is for Blue Crab: A Maryland Alphabet (Discover America State by State)
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Located just below the Mason-Dixon line, Maryland is flavored with both northern and southern culture and tradition. Defined by the largest estuary in the United States (The Chesapeake Bay), Maryland's historic sites/sights include capital city Annapolis and the U.S. Naval Academy, Muddy Creek Falls, and the running of the Preakness Stakes in Baltimore. Noteworthy residents include Harriet Tubman and Francis Scott Key.Shirley C. Menendez grew up in Staunton, Virginia, and graduated from Mary Baldwin College. She earned a master's degree in library science from Drexel University. Before joining the administrative staff of Georgetown University, she was a librarian in the Prince George's County Memorial Library System in Maryland and the Westchester Library System in New York. Shirley lives in Gaithersburg, Maryland, with her husband, who is also a writer. Laura Stutzman graduated from the Art Institute of Pittsburgh, and in 1984 formed a studio called Eloqui with her husband, illustrator Mark Stutzman. She has created imagery for books and magazines, corporations, non-profit organizations, and privately commissioned portraits. Laura teaches a weeklong camp each year for children grades 8 through 12 who are serious about art. She makes her home in Mountain Lake Park, Maryland.

Baltimore Then and Now®

By Alexander D. Mitchell IV

Pavilion
Released: 2017-05-01
Hardcover (144 pages)

Baltimore Then and Now®
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  • PAVILION
Product Description:
Baltimore Then and Now chronicles changes across the city since the dawn of the camera age. It pairs photographs over a century old with specially commissioned views of the same scenes as they exist today, showing how Baltimore has evolved and changed and also how it has preserved its heritage.Baltimore’s many communities boast sprawling city parks, wide tree-lined boulevards, and authentic sailing fishing vessels and pleasure craft, with neighborhoods such as Little Italy and Greektown showing a rich heritage of diverse cultures. The city’s place in American history was firmly established when the poem about the bombardment of Fort McHenry, "The Star-Spangled Banner," became the American national anthem; the fort itself is still one of the city’s most famous landmarks.Located at the mouth of the Patapsco River, Baltimore owes much of its history to geography, which has assured its role as a major port and transportation center. The Industrial Revolution and the two world wars saw Baltimore play a major role in the construction of thousands of ships and the building of nearby weapons, aircraft, and munitions plants. But Baltimore has undergone tremendous change since Susquehannock Indians first inhabited the area centuries ago. From the fire of 1904—the last major city fire in America—which destroyed most of Baltimore’s downtown historic district, to the tourist development of the Inner Harbor in the 1970s, and sports stadiums in the 1990s, the city has undergone years of renovation and rebuilding. Sites include: Federal Hill, U.S.S. Constellation, Fells Point, Shot Tower, Peale Museum, City Hall, Camden Station, John Hopkins University and Hospital, Bromo-Seltzer Tower, B&O Building, Pratt House, Washington Monument, Walters Art Gallery, Union Station, Maryland Art Institute.

Anne Arundel Gentry, A Genealogical History of Some Early Families of Anne Arundel County, Maryland, Volume 1

By Harry Wright Newman

Heritage Books, Inc.
Paperback (506 pages)

Anne Arundel Gentry, A Genealogical History of Some Early Families of Anne Arundel County, Maryland, Volume 1
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Documented genealogical history of Burgess, Gassaway, Gaither, Hammond, Ijams, and Warfield families of Anne Arundel County, Maryland.


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