Louisiana History - the history of Louisiana
   
Vacation 2 USA

Travel & Tourism
 Calendars
 Camping
 Cookbooks
 Cycling
 Fishing
 Flights
 Golf
 Guide Books
 Hiking
 History
 Hotels
 Luggage
 Rental Cars
 Skiing
 Top Attractions
 US Flag
 Links

Cities
 Atlanta
 Baltimore
 Boston
 Chicago
 Dallas
 Detroit
 Denver
 Honolulu
 Houston
 Las Vegas
 Los Angeles
 Miami
 New Orleans
 New York
 Orlando
 Philadelphia
 Phoenix
 Pittsburgh
 San Antonio
 San Diego
 San Francisco
 Seattle
 Tampa
 Washington D.C.

Attractions & Resorts
 The Alamo
 Alcatraz
 Broadway Theatre
 Busch Gardens Africa
 Disneyland Resort
 Empire State Building
 Fisherman's Wharf
 Gateway Arch
 Golden Gate Bridge
 Grand Canyon
 Jefferson Memorial
 Kennedy Space Center
 Lincoln Memorial
 Mount Rushmore
 Napa Valley
 Niagara Falls
 Statue of Liberty
 Walt Disney World
 Washington Monument
 White House
 Yellowstone
 Yosemite
 More US Attractions

Destinations
 Alabama
 Alaska
 American Samoa
 Arizona
 Arkansas
 California
 Colorado
 Connecticut
 Delaware
 Florida
 Georgia
 Guam
 Hawaii
 Idaho
 Illinois
 Indiana
 Iowa
 Kansas
 Kentucky
 Louisiana
 Maine
 Maryland
 Massachusetts
 Michigan
 Minnesota
 Mississippi
 Missouri
 Montana
 Nebraska
 Nevada
 New Hampshire
 New Jersey
 New Mexico
 New York
 North Carolina
 North Dakota
 Northern Mariana Islands
 Ohio
 Oklahoma
 Oregon
 Pennsylvania
 Puerto Rico
 Rhode Island
 South Carolina
 South Dakota
 Tennessee
 Texas
 Utah
 Vermont
 Virgin Islands
 Virginia
 Washington
 Washington D.C.
 West Virginia
 Wisconsin
 Wyoming
 
   














































   
Vacation 2 USA   >   Louisiana   >   History
Vacation 2 USA   >   History   >   Louisiana History

   
 

Louisiana History


In pre-Columbian times, the area that is today the state of Louisiana was home to many Native American peoples. These included the Atakapa, Chitmacha, Bayougoula, Houma, Avoyel, Tunica and Caddo.

The first Europeans to visit the region were Spanish explorers in the 16th century. In 1528, Panfilo de Narvaez's expedition visited the mouth of the Mississippi River, and in 1541, Hernando de Soto crossed the region. The French began arriving in the late 17th century and quickly established settlements. Robert Cavelier de La Salle named the region "Louisiana" in honor of the French King, Louis XIV, in 1682. And a settlement, Fort Maurepas, was established in 1699 (at what is now Ocean Springs, Mississippi, near Biloxi.

The French colony of Louisiana contained land on both sides of the Mississippi River and extended all the way to Canada, including all or part of the following present-day states: Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, South Dakota and North Dakota.

Following the Seven Years' War (generally known in the US as the "French and Indian War"), control of most of the territory east of the Mississippi River, with the exception of the area around New Orleans passed to the British, and the rest of French Louisiana became a colony of Spain. During this period, French-speaking refugees from Acadia (French colonies in Canada and New England) arrived in what is today Southwest Louisiana, their descendants eventually becoming known as the Cajun people.

In 1800, France reacquired Louisiana from Spain in a secret treaty, however three years, in 1803, the territory was sold to the United States, in the Louisiana Purchase.

The United States divided Louisiana into two parts; the Orleans Territory (which was to become the state of Louisiana in 1812), and the District of Louisiana (which was all the rest of the land acquired in the Louisiana Purchase).

A boundary dispute then arose between the US and Spain over West Florida, with the Spanish insisting that this region had not been sold back to France in 1800. However, in the meantime, British settlers have moved into the area, and rebelled against Spain in 1810 forming the short-lived West Florida Republic, which was later annexed to the United States (eventually becoming Louisiana's Florida Parishes) by Presidential proclamation.

During the American Civil War (1861 to 1865), Louisiana seceded and joined the Confederates States of America. New Orleans was captured by the Union in the Spring of 1862, and because a significant part of the state's population had pro-Union sympathies, those parts of the state which were under federal control were designated as a state within the Union - even going so far as having their own representatives in the Congress.

Following the Civil War, Louisiana went through a difficult period of Reconstruction. For a brief period, the idea of equality for former slaves flourished, but soon segregation, Jim Crow laws, and racial discrimination were imposed. The famous court case, Plessy v. Ferguson, in which the US Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation was legal so long as it did not result in obvious inequality ("separate but equal") was a result of these events in Louisiana. Racial segregation lasted for the best of a century, only being abolished in the 1960s, as a result of the nationwide Civil Rights struggle.

In the first half of 20th century, New Orleans became an important center for jazz music. During the period of the Great Depression, the state's Governor, Huey Long, became famous for his radical populist and redistribution policies.

In 2005, Louisiana (along with other states on the Gulf of Mexico coast) was hit by Hurricane Katrina. In particular, when New Orleans was battered by the hurricane, the city's levees and flood walls were breached, and much of the city, which was largely below sea level, was flooded.


Disclosure: Products details and descriptions provided by Amazon.com. Our company may receive a payment if you purchase products from them after following a link from this website.

Louisiana: A History

Wiley-Blackwell
Paperback (552 pages)

Louisiana: A History
List Price: $39.95*
Lowest New Price: $28.27*
Lowest Used Price: $21.12*
Usually ships in 24 hours*
*(As of 06:52 Pacific 28 Mar 2017 More Info)


Click Here
Product Description:
Covering the lively, even raucous, history of Louisiana from before First Contact through the Elections of 2012, this sixth edition of the classic Louisiana history survey provides an engaging and comprehensive narrative of what is arguably America’s most colorful state.

  • Since the appearance of the first edition of this classic text in 1984, Louisiana: A History has remained the best-loved and most highly regarded college-level survey of Louisiana on the market
  • Compiled by some of the foremost experts in the field of Louisiana history who combine their own research with recent historical discoveries
  • Includes complete coverage of the most recent events in political and environmental history, including the continued aftermath of Katrina and the 2010 BP oil spill
  • Considers the interrelationship between Louisiana history and that of the American South and the nation as a whole
  • Written in an engaging and accessible style complemented by more than a hundred photographs and maps

The World That Made New Orleans: From Spanish Silver to Congo Square

By Ned Sublette

Brand: Chicago Review Press
Paperback (368 pages)

The World That Made New Orleans: From Spanish Silver to Congo Square
List Price: $16.95*
Lowest New Price: $9.41*
Lowest Used Price: $4.27*
Usually ships in 24 hours*
*(As of 06:52 Pacific 28 Mar 2017 More Info)


Click Here
  • Used Book in Good Condition
Product Description:
Named one of the Top 10 Books of 2008 by The Times-Picayune.
 
Winner of the 2009 Humanities Book of the Year award from the Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities.
Awarded the New Orleans Gulf South Booksellers Association Book of the Year Award for 2008.
 

New Orleans is the most elusive of American cities. The product of the centuries-long struggle among three mighty empires--France, Spain, and England--and among their respective American colonies and enslaved African peoples, it has always seemed like a foreign port to most Americans, baffled as they are by its complex cultural inheritance.

 

The World That Made New Orleans offers a new perspective on this insufficiently understood city by telling the remarkable story of New Orleans’s first century--a tale of imperial war, religious conflict, the search for treasure, the spread of slavery, the Cuban connection, the cruel aristocracy of sugar, and the very different revolutions that created the United States and Haiti. It demonstrates that New Orleans already had its own distinct personality at the time of Louisiana’s statehood in 1812. By then, important roots of American music were firmly planted in its urban swamp--especially in the dances at Congo Square, where enslaved Africans and African Americans appeared en masse on Sundays to, as an 1819 visitor to the city put it, “rock the city.” 

 

This book is a logical continuation of Ned Sublette’s previous volume, Cuba and Its Music: From the First Drums to the Mambo, which was highly praised for its synthesis of musical, cultural, and political history. Just as that book has become a standard resource on Cuba, so too will The World That Made New Orleans long remain essential for understanding the beautiful and tragic story of this most American of cities.

A History of Louisiana Volume 1

By Alcee Fortier

CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
Paperback (128 pages)

A History of Louisiana Volume 1
List Price: $5.99*
Lowest New Price: $5.42*
Lowest Used Price: $3.99*
Usually ships in 24 hours*
*(As of 06:52 Pacific 28 Mar 2017 More Info)


Click Here
Product Description:
From the preface: “A native of Louisiana and a member of a family which established itself in Nero Orleans shortly after the foundation of that city in 1718, the author of this book may be permitted to say that he has written it con amore—avec amour, as he prefers to say in the language of his venerated ancestors. It was indeed a labor of love to relate the history of Louisiana, from the discovery of the great Mississippi by the knightly De Soto to our own times. How pleasant it was to accompany La Salle down the mighty river to the Gulf of Mexico, to witness the heroic efforts of Iberville and Bienville to colonize Louisiana, to see the growth, of New Orleans and be introduced to the brave men and gentle women who dwelt, in the eighteenth century, in the little town which they already considered delightful and which they compared with pride to the Paris of Louis XV! How ennobling the Revolution of 1768, when a handful of men rose against the oppression of a powerful foreign government and thought of establishing a republic on the banks of the Mississippi! How interesting the campaigns of Bernardo de Galvez against the British, which have given the Louisianians of to-day the right of belonging to the Society of the Sons of the American Revolution! The colonial history of French and of Spanish Louisianians highly instructive and interesting, but no less so is the history of American Louisiana. On December 20, 1803, Laussat transferred the province to the United States, and the Louisianians became, from that time, true Americans. Under the leadership of Jackson, they helped to repel the British from American soil, and from 1815 to 1861, aided by worthy citizens from other parts of the Union, they strove earnestly to develop the wonderful resources of their State. When the Civil War broke out the men of Louisiana fought bravely for rights which they held sacred, and the women displayed a patriotism, a courage, fully equal to that of the men. More apparent still was that fortitude during the terrible years which followed the tear, until the people regained, in 1877, the right of self-government, and made use of it to enjoy prosperity, liberty, and happiness. It is natural that the author of this book should take pride in relating the history of the events which took place on the soil of Louisiana for the last two hundred years. In nearly all of these events men of his name or of his blood took part. In spite of this personal interest in the history of Louisiana, the author has striven earnestly and honestly to be impartial and just in his narrative of facts and in his judgment of men. However, he has not refrained from expressing indignation at vnworthy deeds and praise for noble actions. In his opinion, impartiality does not preclude interest in events and warmth in relating them. History is not a mere chronicle of facts. It deals with the inner life of men, with their customs and manners, as well as with their political and warlike deeds. An attempt has therefore been made in this work to depict both the inner and the outward life of the people of Louisiana, and for that purpose they have often been allowed to express their feelings in their own words. The author has endeavored to revive the men and women of the past, to show them with their hearts throbbing with warm blood, with all the impulses of humanity. He knows very well that he has not succeeded in this arduous task, but he asserts again that he has striven to do full justice to all the persons whose names he has mentioned. There is malice against none, if there is sometimes severity.”

Louisiana History Collection - Volume 1 (Louisiana History Boxed Sets)

By Jennifer Blake

Steel Magnolia Press
Released: 2012-11-17
Kindle Edition (1054 pages)

Louisiana History Collection - Volume 1 (Louisiana History Boxed Sets)
 
Product Description:
Romance ignites amidst the tumult of a territory striving to find its identity as it passes from pre-colonial rule to US statehood and beyond. Parts 1 and 2 of the Louisiana History Collection present these lush, politically tense historical romances in chronological order.

FIERCE EDEN
Reynaud, half Natchez Indian, requires that Elise share his bedroll in exchange for saving her friends during an uprising. Widowed after a brutish marriage, Elise fears intimacy more than the Natchez. How can she view Reynaud as an enemy after his tender introduction to love?

LOUISIANA DAWN
Cyrene rescues a handsome rake from drowning for the sake of his silver lace. In return, she requests he relieve her of her tiresome virginity. She expects to be her own woman afterward…but fails to reckon with René’s skill or her own lonely heart.

EMBRACE AND CONQUER
Félicité despises the Irish colonel who marches into New Orleans with the Spanish conquerors; pride demands she escape from his beguiling embrace. Will he let her go, or follow into the trap of a pirate’s lair?

Teche: A History of Louisiana's Most Famous Bayou (America's Third Coast Series)

By Shane K. Bernard

University Press of Mississippi
Hardcover (272 pages)

Teche: A History of Louisiana s Most Famous Bayou (America s Third Coast Series)
List Price: $25.00*
Lowest New Price: $15.75*
Lowest Used Price: $16.49*
Usually ships in 24 hours*
*(As of 06:52 Pacific 28 Mar 2017 More Info)


Click Here
Product Description:

Shane K. Bernard’s Teche examines this legendary waterway of the American Deep South. Bernard delves into the bayou’s geologic formation as a vestige of the Mississippi and Red Rivers, its prehistoric Native American occupation, and its colonial settlement by French, Spanish, and, eventually, Anglo-American pioneers. He surveys the coming of indigo, cotton, and sugar; steam-powered sugar mills and riverboats; and the brutal institution of slavery. He also examines the impact of the Civil War on the Teche, depicting the running battles up and down the bayou and the sporadic gunboat duels, when ironclads clashed in the narrow confines of the dark, sluggish river.

Describing the misery of the postbellum era, Bernard reveals how epic floods, yellow fever, racial violence, and widespread poverty disrupted the lives of those who resided under the sprawling, moss-draped live oaks lining the Teche’s banks. Further, he chronicles the slow decline of the bayou, as the coming of the railroad, automobiles, and highways reduced its value as a means of travel. Finally, he considers modern efforts to redesign the Teche using dams, locks, levees, and other water-control measures. He examines the recent push to clean and revitalize the bayou after years of desecration by litter, pollutants, and invasive species. Illustrated with historic images and numerous maps, this book will be required reading for anyone seeking the colorful history of Louisiana and the Gulf Coast.

As a bonus, the second part of the book describes Bernard’s own canoe journey down the Teche’s 125-mile course. This modern personal account from the field reveals the current state of the bayou and the remarkable people who still live along its banks.

A History of Louisiana (Classic Reprint)

By Grace King

Forgotten Books
Paperback (334 pages)

A History of Louisiana (Classic Reprint)
List Price: $13.57*
Lowest New Price: $13.57*
Lowest Used Price: $13.30*
Usually ships in 24 hours*
*(As of 06:52 Pacific 28 Mar 2017 More Info)


Click Here
Product Description:
Excerpt from A History of Louisiana

In presenting this History of Louisiana to the people of the State, the authors find it necessary to say a word of preface. Their intention has been to write a history that would give the children of Louisiana a simple and true account of the progress of the State from the earliest times of discovery down to the present era. It is hoped, however, that the work will not prove uninteresting to older persons as well.

Every effort has been made to secure accuracy of detail; but as some errors may have crept in, the authors will be glad to receive notice of any that may meet the eye of the critic.

It may be added that all the artistic and mechanical portion of the work was done in New Orleans - the book is entirely a home product.

The authors desire to thank the librarians of the Fisk, the Howard, and the State Libraries for uniform courtesy and kindness in putting at their disposal the rich historical treasures from which the materials of this work are drawn.

Among these treasures the authors wish to acknowledge their special obligations to the Histories of Louisiana by the Hon. Charles Gayarré and Judge Martin; to Fiske's Discovery of America; to Margry's Documents; and to the official documents relating to the French and Spanish Domination.

Grateful acknowledgment is also made to E. H. Farrar, Esq., for the privilege he kindly granted of borrowing books and maps from his valuable library.

The authors owe special thanks to Messrs. L. Graham & Son, printers, for the care they have taken in the execution of their share of the labor.

In conclusion it is proper to state that Miss King wrote the first part of the history (as far as the end of the Spanish Domination), and that Mr. Ficklen completed it.

About the Publisher

Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com

This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

Louisiana History Collection - Volume 2 (Louisiana History Boxed Sets)

By Jennifer Blake

Steel Magnolia Press
Released: 2012-11-17
Kindle Edition (1299 pages)

Louisiana History Collection - Volume 2 (Louisiana History Boxed Sets)
 
Product Description:
Romance ignites amidst the tumult of a territory striving to find its identity as it passes from pre-colonial rule to US statehood and beyond. Parts 1 and 2 of the Louisiana History Collection present these lush, politically tense historical romances in chronological order.

SPANISH SERENADE
Pilar persuades a notorious bandit to abduct her as she travels to her arranged wedding. Everything goes wrong, and she is left to El Leon’s mercy. But what if he has none…?

PERFUME OF PARADISE
Elene’s perfume has Voodoo magic meant to captivate her groom. But when an island uprising halts the wedding, it’s the ship captain trapped with her who feels its effects. Is the desire between Ryan and Elene real – or as false as those who surround them?

PRISONER OF DESIRE
Anya abducts infamous duelist Ravel Duralde to save a young man from his deadly skill. Ravel is intrigued – and in no hurry to escape. Desire builds inside their intimate prison, yet danger lies outside, waiting for Anya to let him go….

SOUTHERN RAPTURE
Strait-laced Lettie arrives in Louisiana from the northeast after the Civil War – and her true nature flowers in the southern heat. She must be depraved that she can revel in the kisses of both the mysterious nightrider known as The Thorne and sweetly handsome Ranny who was brain-injured during the war….

Strange True Stories of Louisiana

By George W. Cable

Leopold Classic Library
Released: 2016-11-23
Paperback (372 pages)

Strange True Stories of Louisiana
List Price: $20.95*
Lowest New Price: $20.95*
Usually ships in 24 hours*
*(As of 06:52 Pacific 28 Mar 2017 More Info)


Click Here
Product Description:
Leopold is delighted to publish this classic book as part of our extensive Classic Library collection. Many of the books in our collection have been out of print for decades, and therefore have not been accessible to the general public. The aim of our publishing program is to facilitate rapid access to this vast reservoir of literature, and our view is that this is a significant literary work, which deserves to be brought back into print after many decades. The contents of the vast majority of titles in the Classic Library have been scanned from the original works. To ensure a high quality product, each title has been meticulously hand curated by our staff. This means that we have checked every single page in every title, making it highly unlikely that any material imperfections – such as poor picture quality, blurred or missing text - remain. When our staff observed such imperfections in the original work, these have either been repaired, or the title has been excluded from the Leopold Classic Library catalogue. As part of our on-going commitment to delivering value to the reader, within the book we have also provided you with a link to a website, where you may download a digital version of this work for free. Our philosophy has been guided by a desire to provide the reader with a book that is as close as possible to ownership of the original work. We hope that you will enjoy this wonderful classic work, and that for you it becomes an enriching experience. If you would like to learn more about the Leopold Classic Library collection please visit our website at www.leopoldclassiclibrary.com

Creole: The History and Legacy of Louisiana's Free People of Color

Brand: Louisiana State University Press
Paperback (368 pages)

Creole: The History and Legacy of Louisiana s Free People of Color
List Price: $25.95*
Lowest New Price: $21.15*
Lowest Used Price: $18.00*
Usually ships in 24 hours*
*(As of 06:52 Pacific 28 Mar 2017 More Info)


Click Here
  • Used Book in Good Condition
Product Description:

The word Creole evokes a richness rivaled only by the term's widespread misunderstanding. Now both aspects of this unique people and culture are given thorough, illuminating scrutiny in Creole, a comprehensive, multidisciplinary history of Louisiana's Creole population. Written by scholars, many of Creole descent, the volume wrangles with the stuff of legend and conjecture while fostering an appreciation for the Creole contribution to the American mosaic.

The collection opens with a historically relevant perspective found in Alice Moore Dunbar-Nelson's 1916 piece "People of Color of Louisiana" and continues with contemporary writings: Joan M. Martin on the history of quadroon balls; Michel Fabre and Creole expatriates in France; Barbara Rosendale Duggal with a debiased view of Marie Laveau; Fehintola Mosadomi and the downtrodden roots of Creole grammar; Anthony G. Barthelemy on skin color and racism as an American legacy; Caroline Senter on Reconstruction poets of political vision; and much more. Violet Harrington Bryan, Lester Sullivan, Jennifer DeVere Brody, Sybil Kein, Mary Gehman, Arthi A. Anthony, and Mary L. Morton offer excellent commentary on topics that range from the lifestyles of free women of color in the nineteenth century to the Afro-Caribbean links to Creole cooking.

By exploring the vibrant yet marginalized culture of the Creole people across time, Creole goes far in diminishing past and present stereotypes of this exuberant segment of our society. A study that necessarily embraces issues of gender, race and color, class, and nationalism, it speaks to the tensions of an increasingly ethnically mixed mainstream America.

A History of Louisiana Vol. 3 (Volume 3)

By Alcée Fortier

Cornerstone Book Publishers
Paperback (280 pages)

A History of Louisiana Vol. 3 (Volume 3)
List Price: $18.95*
Lowest New Price: $15.30*
Lowest Used Price: $17.99*
Usually ships in 24 hours*
*(As of 06:52 Pacific 28 Mar 2017 More Info)


Click Here
Product Description:
This is volume three of four. This highly respected history of Louisiana is packed with rare details and information on the early history of Louisiana and is published in four volumes. Photographic reproduction of 1904 first edition. Illustrated. DON'T FORGET: This is a FOUR book set with each book sold separately. The ISBNs are: 1613420382, 1613420390, 1613420404 & 1613420412.


Your Comments


Please share your comments about fishing in Louisiana:

   
Click here
 
 

 
 
Note: Our company does NOT provide travel, vacation, hotel, car rental services or associated products or services. Any links (including but not limited to banners, text links, or search forms) to such items on this web site are adverts from third parties. Sorry we can NOT answer questions about these types of products or services.

Unless specifically noted on the page in question, our company is NOT associated with any particular destinations, resorts, attractions or places of interest that may be described on this website. In such cases, we have often provided links to the official sites where possible, or other third party sites containing useful information, purely as a courtesy and for informational purposes only.

All information about attractions, places of interest, travel destinations, travel services, etc., was believed to be correct at the time it was prepared, but may be change at any time. Readers are advised to check with the facility/resort operator, their travel agent, travel provider, or the attraction operator, for current information.


Copyright © 2006-2017, Answers 2000 Limited

CERTAIN CONTENT THAT APPEARS ON THIS SITE COMES FROM AMAZON SERVICES LLC. THIS CONTENT IS PROVIDED 'AS IS' AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE OR REMOVAL AT ANY TIME.

Disclosure: Our company's websites' content (including this website's content) includes advertisements for our own company's websites, products, and services, and for other organization's websites, products, and services. In the case of links to other organization's websites, our company may receive a payment, (1) if you purchase products or services, or (2) if you sign-up for third party offers, after following links from this website. Unless specifically otherwise stated, information about other organization's products and services, is based on information provided by that organization, the product/service vendor, and/or publicly available information - and should not be taken to mean that we have used the product/service in question. Additionally, our company's websites contain some adverts which we are paid to display, but whose content is not selected by us, such as Google AdSense ads. For more detailed information, please see Advertising/Endorsements Disclosures

Our sites use cookies, some of which may already be set on your computer. Use of our site constitutes consent for this. For details, please see Privacy.

Contact Us   Privacy   Terms of Use   Advertising/Endorsements Disclosures


In Association With Amazon.com
Answers 2000 Limited is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.
All trademarks are property of their respective owners.
All third party content and adverts are copyright of their respective owners.

Some graphics on our web sites are Copyright (C) 1997-2000 Hemera Technologies Inc., and used under license. All such pictures are provided for viewing purposes only and are not to be saved or downloaded. All such pictures of recognizable individuals are models and used for illustrative purposes only, and not meant to imply any association or endorsement of said individual with any product or service.